The plural of nouns in English

1. Regular Plural Forms

1.1. How to form the plural

We form the plural by adding -s to the singular of the noun.

Singular Plural
a car two cars
a cassette two cassettes
a lamp two lamps
a hat two hats
a cup two cups

1.2. Nouns ending in sibilants

Add -es. Add -s if the noun ends in one -e.

Singular Plural
a box two boxes
a sandwich two sandwiches
a suitcase two suitcases
a rose two roses
a garage two garages

1.3. Nouns ending in -y

1.3.1. y after consonant

Change -y to -i, then add -es.

Singular Plural
a city two cities
a lady two ladies

There are two forms of the plural of the word penny:

  • pennies → You refer to the single coins.
  • pence →You refer to the price (how much sth. is).

1.3.2. y after vowel

Add -s after a vowel.

Singular Plural
a boy two boys
a day two days

1.4. Nouns ending in -f or -fe

1.4.1. Add -s

Singular Plural
a roof two roofs
a cliff two cliffs
a sheriff two sheriffs

1.4.2. Substitute with -ves

Singular Plural
a thief two thieves
a wife two wives
a shelf two shelves

Both forms are possible with the following nous:

  • scarf → scarfs/scarves
  • hoof → hoofs/hooves

Add -s for words ending in -ff.

1.5. Nouns ending in -o

1.5.1. Add -s

Singular Plural
a disco two discos
a piano two pianos
a photo two photos

1.5.2. Add -es

Singular Plural
a tomato two tomatoes
a potato two potatoes
a hero two heroes

Both forms are possible with the following nous:

  • buffalo → buffalos/buffaloes
  • mosquito → mosquitos/mosquitoes
  • tornado → tornados/tornadoes

2. Irregular Plural Forms

Singular Plural
a man two men
a woman two women
a child two children
a mouse two mice
a tooth two teeth
a goose two geese
a foot two feet
an ox two oxen