do and dynamic verbs in the Present Perfect Progressive
How to use special verbs in the Present Perfect Progressive
We do not normally use verbs which express a state in this tense. We prefer verbs which describe a process.
A verb which expresses an action (dynamic verb) can form both Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive:
1. Present Perfect
I have visited him in Canada. (The focus is on the result. – I have been there and I have met him.)
2. Present Perfect Progressive
I have been visiting him in Canada. (The focus is on the duration of the action.)
A verb which expresses a state can only form Present Perfect:
I have believed him.
Have a look at verbs which are not used in progressive forms (state verbs).
3. do as a main verb
|Pronouns||Affirmative sentences||Negative sentences||Questions|
|I||I have been doing an exercise.||I have not been doing an exercise.||Have I been doing an exercise?|
|you||You have been doing an exercise.||You have not been doing an exercise.||Have you been doing an exercise?|
|he, she, it||He has been doing an exercise.||He has not been doing an exercise.||Has he been doing an exercise?|
|we, you, they||They have been doing an exercise.||They have not been doing an exercise.||Have they been doing an exercise?|
► We can subtitute haven't been doing (hasn't been doing) for have not been doing (has not been doing).