Present Perfect

1. Use of the Present Perfect

1.1. result of actions in the past is important in the present – It is not important when the actions happened.

I have cleaned my room.

1.2. recently completed actions

He has just played handball.

1.3. states beginning in the past and still continuing

We have lived in Canada since 1986.

1.4. together with lately, recently, yet

I have been to London recently.

2. Signal words

  • just
  • yet
  • never
  • already
  • ever
  • so far
  • up to now
  • recently
  • since
  • for

3. Form

have/has + past participle *

4. Examples

4.1. Affirmative sentences in the Present Perfect – regular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
I have cleaned my room. I've cleaned my room.
You have cleaned your room. You've cleaned your room.
He has cleaned his room. He's cleaned his room.

4.2. Affirmative sentences in the Present Perfect – irregular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
I have gone home. I've gone home.
You have gone home. You've gone home.
He has gone home. He's gone home.

4.3. Negative sentences in the Present Perfect – regular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
I have not cleaned my room. I haven't cleaned the room.
I've not cleaned the room.*
You have not cleaned your room. You haven't cleaned the room.
You've not cleaned the room.*
He has not cleaned his room. He hasn't cleaned the room.
He's not cleaned the room.*

* This form is rarely used.

4.4. Negative sentences in the Present Perfect – irregular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
I have not gone home. I haven't gone home.
I've not gone home.*
You have not gone home. You haven't gone home.
You've not gone home.*
He has not gone home. He hasn't gone home.
He's not gone home.*

* This form is rarely used.

4.5. Questions in the Present Perfect – regular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
Have I cleaned the room? There are no contracted forms.
Have you cleaned the room?
Has he cleaned the room?

4.6. Questions in the Presentast Perfect – irregular verbs

Long forms Contracted forms
Have I gone home? There are no contracted forms.
Have you gone home?
Has he gone home?

* past participle:

  • regular verbs → infinitive + -ed
  • irregular verbs → 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs