Use of the Past Perfect

When do we use the Past Perfect?

1. together with the Simple Past

When two past actions are combined – the first action, which was completed before the second one began, is put into Past Perfect.

Mary had read the book before she watched a film.
After Amy had gone home it started to rain.

2. the past equivalent of the Present Perfect

He had played hockey.

Present Perfect Past Perfect
The bike is new. I have bought it. The bike was new. I had bought it.
Past Perfect – Simple Past Simple Past - Simple Past
The match had started before he arrived. The match started when he arrived.