Participles, Participle constructions

1. Use

  1. to shorten relative clauses
  2. to make one sentence out of two
  3. after verbs of ›perception‹ (e.g. see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel)
  4. after verbs of ›rest‹ and ›movement‹ (e.g. run, go, come, stay, stand, lie, sit)
  5. after the verb have
  6. instead of a subordinate clause

2. Form

  • Present participle: an exciting race
  • Past participle: excited people

3. Examples

  1. The cars which are produced in Japan are nice.
    The cars produced in Japan are nice.
  2. I saw the man. He came to the shop.
    I saw the man coming to the shop.
  3. I saw the car coming round the corner.
  4. The girl sat sleeping on the sofa.
  5. I have my clothes washed.
  6. When you go to England you improve your English.
    Going to England improves your English.