Plural in English

Singular and plural
Summary
Plural nouns in English
Singular nouns in English
Foreign plurals
Singular or plural for groups of people
Countable and uncountable nouns
Singular and plural - Exercises and tests
singular plural
a car two cars
a cassette two cassettes
a lamp two lamps
a hat two hats
a cup two cups

Add -es after sibilants:

singular plural
a box two boxes
a sandwich two sandwiches
a suitcase two suitcases
a rose two roses
a garage two garages


Substitute y after consonant with -ies:

singular plural
a city two cities
a lady two ladies

Add -s after vowel + y:

singular plural
a boy two boys
a day two days

There are two forms of the plural of the word penny:
pennies -> You refer to the coins.
pence -> You refer to the price (how much sth. is).


Nouns on -f or -fe:

add -s substitute with -ves
singular plural singular plural
a roof two roofs a thief two thieves
a cliff two cliffs a wife two wives
a sheriff two sheriffs a shelf two shelves

There are two forms possible:

scarf - scarfs/scarves
hoof - hoofs/hooves

Add -s for words ending in -ff.

Always use a dictionary if you are not sure.


Nouns on -o form the plural by adding -s or -es.

add -s substitute with -ves
singular plural singular plural
a disco two discos a tomato two tomatoes
a piano two pianos a potato two potatoes
a photo two photos a hero two heroes

Some nouns can have two plural forms:

buffalo - buffalos/buffaloes
mosquito - mosquitos/mosquitoes
tornado - tornados/tornadoes

There is no rule when to use -s or -es. We often add -s with technical words.


Irregular plural forms:

singular plural
a man two men
a woman two women
a child two children
a mouse two mice
a tooth two teeth
a goose two geese
a foot two feet
an ox two oxen
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