Present Participle, Past Participle, Perfect Participle

1. Present participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express an active action. In English we add -ing to the infinitive of the verb.

1.1. Use of the present participle

  • Progressive Tenses

    He is reading a book.

    He was reading a book.

  • Gerund

    Reading books is fun.

    He likes reading books.

  • Adjective

    Look at the reading boy.

  • Together with other words

    He came reading around the corner.

    He sat reading in the corner.

    I saw him reading.

2. Past participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express a passive action. In English we add -ed to the infinitive of regular verbs. We use the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.

2.1. Use of the past participle

  • Perfect Tenses

    He has forgotten the pencil.

    He had forgotten the pencil.

  • Passiv voice

    A house is built.

    A house was built.

  • Adjective

    Look at the washed car.

  • Together with other words

    The car washed yesterday is blue.

    He had his car washed.

3. Compounds with the past participle

This combination is also known as perfect participle. It is used to form an active sentence with the past participle. There is a time gap between the actions.

3.1. Past participle and having

  • Having read the book the boy came out of the room.

One action happened after the other.

3.2. Present participle

  • The boy came reading out of the room.

Both actions happened at the same time.