Present participle, past participle, perfect participle

1) present participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express an active action.
In English we add -ing to the infinitive of the verb.

Use of the present participle

Progressive/
Continuous tense
He is reading a book.
He was reading a book.
Gerund Reading books is fun.
He likes reading books.
Participle Look at the reading boy.
He came reading around the corner.
He sat reading in the corner.
I saw him reading.

2-1) past participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express a passive action.
In English we add -ed to the infinitive of regular verbs. We use the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.

Use of the past participle

Perfect tenses He has forgotten the pencil.
He had forgotten the pencil.
Passive voice A house is built.
A house was built.
Participle Look at the washed car.
The car washed yesterday is blue.
He had his car washed.

2-2) Compounds with the past participle

This combination is also known as perfect participle. It is used to form an active sentence with the past participle. There is a time gap between the actions.

past participle and having

Having read the book the boy came out of the room. One action happened after the other.

present participle

The boy came reading out of the room. Both actions happened at the same time.
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