Long forms, contracted forms (short forms) of auxiliaries

1. to be (am, are, is)

Affirmative Negative
Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I am --- I am not I'm not
you are --- you are not you're not
you aren't
he is --- he is not he's not
he isn't
she is --- she is not she's not
she isn't
it is --- it is not it's not
it isn't
we are --- we are not we're not
we aren't
you are --- you are not you're not
you aren't
they are --- they are not they're not
they aren't

2. to be (was, were)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it I was --- I was not I wasn't
we, you, they we were --- we were not you weren't

3. have (got)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, we, you, they I have got I've got we have not got we've not got
we haven't got
he, she, it she has got she's got she has not got she's not got
she hasn't got

4. had (got)

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, they I had got I'd got we had not got we'd not got
we hadn't got

5. do

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, we, you, they I do --- we do not we don't
he, she, it she does --- she does not she doesn't

6. did

  Affirmative Negative
Pronoun Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
I, he, she, it, we, you, they we did --- we did not we didn't

7. Modals (can, could, must, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to)

Affirmative Negative
Long form Contracted form Long form Contracted form
can - cannot can't
could - could not couldn't
must - must not mustn't
might - might not --
need - need not needn't
will 'll will not won't
would 'd would not wouldn't
shall - shall not shan't
should 'd should not shouldn't
ought to - ought not to oughtn't to

The short/contracted forms 's and 'd have have two different long forms:

  • he's = he is or he has
  • he'd = he would or he had

We seldom use short/contracted forms after names and nouns.

  • Peter has got a book. = Peter's got a book.
  • The children have visited London. = The children've visited London.

If have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.

  • They have breakfast at 6 o'clock.