Long forms, contracted forms (short forms)

Long forms, contracted forms of to be (am, are, is) - detailed explanations
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I am I'm I am not I'm not
he, she, it:
he is he's he is not he isn't or he's not
we, you, they:
we are we're we are not we aren't or we're not
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, he, she, it:
he was - he was not he wasn't
we, you, they:
we were - we were not we weren't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, we, you, they:
we have got we've got we have not got we've not got or we haven't got
he, she, it:
he has got he's got he has not got he's not got or he hasn't got
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I had I'd I had not I hadn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
I, we, you, they:
I do - I do not I don't
he, she, it:
he does - he does not he doesn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I did - I did not I didn't
affirmative negative
long form short form long form short form
can - cannot can't
could - could not couldn't
must - must not mustn't
might - might not --
need - need not needn't
will 'll will not won't
would 'd would not wouldn't
shall - shall not shan't
should 'd should not shouldn't
ought to - ought not to oughtn't to

The short forms 's and 'd have two different long forms:
he's = he is or he has
he'd = he would or he had

We seldom use short forms after names and nouns.
Peter has got a book. = Peter's got a book.
The children have visited London. = The children've visited London.

When have is a full verb, we do not use the short form.
They have breakfast at 6 o'clock.

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